Every day the
same type of conversation takes place between women
going through menopause and their doctors. Afterwards
doctors usually write out prescriptions for estrogen
pills or patches, saying they will replace the hormones
that a woman’s body ought to be making. The doctor
promises these medicines will cure her hot flashes, slow
her bone loss, and reduce her risk of a heart attack.
Unfortunately we find out:
The risk of
having a blood clot was close to 30 percent
more for a woman on estrogen vs. not on estrogen.
Dr. J. David Curb
therapy appears to increase the risk of blood clots in
the veins of postmenopausal women who have had their
uterus removed. These latest results from the Women's
Health Initiative (WHI) were unexpected, even to the
study's lead author. "It surprised us all how few
benefits have come out of this and how many negatives,"
said Dr. J. David Curb, a professor of geriatric
medicine at the University of Hawaii. The study appeared
in the April 10, 2006 issue of the Archives of Internal
women ask if the pills cause cancer. The doctor
acknowledges that there is an increased risk of uterine
and breast cancer, but argues that the benefits to the
heart and bones are worth taking the chance. Of course
there is concern about other risks from these
medications like strokes and water retention, among
lured into a snare by a trail of crumbs, women have been
cajoled with scientific studies, media advertising,
patient hand books and
drug samples to accept Hormone Replacement Therapy as a
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) does
not do justice to the finely tuned hormone system
that operates throughout a woman's life. In reality,
hormone levels may begin to change in the 30s, as a
woman enters a period called perimenopause. In the
decades leading up to menopause, small hormonal
imbalances can exist, so by the time menopause sets in,
a woman may have already experienced close to 20 years
of hormonal imbalance.
replacement actually can cause the body to slow down the
production of its own natural hormones, including
melatonin, DHEA, progesterone and human growth hormone.
HRT does not treat the cause of any problem, it only
addresses--and perpetuates--the symptoms. Adding
hormones artificially is a form of medical roulette
because you never really know how the finely balanced
hormonal system will respond.
My MD put me on hormone therapy, a combination of
estrogen and progesterone and the effects on me were
profound. Within the first month .my feet and legs
swelled up all the way to my knees. I could not get
shoes on, (but the hot flashes were gone) and when I
stopped the hormones, it took almost a full month for
the swelling to dissipate and my feet and legs to get
back to normal. I experienced breakthrough bleeding,
which was told to me might occur, but everyday?
French RN, LPHA
to the risk of disease, the side effects associated with HRT include mood changes, nausea, breakthrough vaginal
bleeding and bloating, breast tenderness, concerns about
and ovarian cancer,
gall bladder disease, and thromboembolic events. Strong
Medline warnings for estrogen now state: “Estrogen
increases the risk that you will develop endometrial
cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus [womb]). The
longer you take estrogen, the greater the risk that you
will develop endometrial cancer. If you have not had a
hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus), you might
have been given another medication called a progestin to
take with estrogen. This may decrease your risk of
developing endometrial cancer, but may increase your
risk of developing certain other health problems,
including breast cancer.”
Concerns about safety and
effectiveness are causing a retreat from the blanket use
of HRT. An estimated 30 to 45 percent of women who
receive prescriptions for HRT will not have their
prescriptions filled or will discontinue therapy within
12 months of initiation.
between Cholesterol, Magnesium and Hormones.
impossible to consider estrogen and progesterone in
isolation from other hormones and from precursors like
cholesterol and magnesium.
All steroid hormones are created from
cholesterol in a hormonal cascade.
Cholesterol, that most maligned compound, is actually
crucial for health and is the mother of hormones from
the adrenal cortex, including cortisone, hydrocortisone,
aldosterone, and DHEA. One of the most basic hormones
and the first in the cascade
which is converted into other hormones, including
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone,
testosterone, and the various forms of estrogen. These
hormones are interrelated, each performing a unique
DHEA is a steroid
hormone produced by the adrenal gland and ovaries and
converted to testosterone and estrogen.
secreted by the adrenal glands, it circulates in the
bloodstream as DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and is converted
as needed into other hormones.
cannot be synthesized without magnesium and cholesterol
is a vital component of hormones.
Aldosterone is one such hormone, and helps to control
the balance of magnesium and other minerals in the body.
Interestingly aldosterone needs magnesium to be produced
and it also regulates magnesium's balance.
Women who suffer from premature menopause, or an early
failure of the ovaries report that magnesium often helps
fight the crashing fatigue that often comes at the
beginning of premature or early menopause by boosting
that magnesium plays in the transmission of hormones
(such as insulin, thyroid, estrogen, testosterone, DHEA,
etc.), neurotransmitters (such as dopamine,
catecholamines, serotonin, GABA, etc.), and mineral
electrolytes is a strong one. Research concludes that it
is magnesium status that controls cell membrane
potential and through this means controls uptake and
release of many hormones, nutrients and
says Dr. Lewis B. Barnett, “is needed by the pituitary
gland. The pituitary, someArial called the miracle
gland, takes instructions from the hypothalamus in the
brain to which it is connected by a thin stalk, then
transmits them through the body in the form of chemical
messengers known as hormones. These hormones not only
exert a direct influence of their own, but also trigger
the production of other vital hormones elsewhere in the
When the pituitary
is not getting the magnesium it needs, it fails in its
function of exercising a sort of thermostatic control
over the adrenals which are thus allowed to overproduce
there are wide fluctuations in the hormones estrogen,
testosterone, FSH, LH, and progesterone and it is these
widely fluctuating hormone
levels that can cause many problems, the least of which
is hot flashes.
are primarily responsible for the conversion of girls
into sexually-mature women in the development of
breasts, the further development of the uterus and
vagina, broadening of the pelvis, growth of pubic and axillary hair and play a role in the increase in adipose
(fat) tissue. They also participate in the monthly
preparation of the body for a possible pregnancy and
participate in pregnancy if it occurs.
Estrogen is not
one hormone, but many, and our bodies continue to make
estrogens all of our lives. The adrenals, the fat
tissues, and perhaps the uterus make estrogens.
brought on by the natural decrease
in the body’s production of estrogen and progesterone.
causes a higher absorption and use of magnesium and
Estrogen is normally associated with pregnancy. During
pregnancy the body needs more minerals and estrogen
takes care of the higher absorption. The estrogen
enables a female to get just enough magnesium out of a
low-magnesium diet. When the estrogen levels drop, the
magnesium absorption drops and hypomagnesemia (magnesium
deficiency) is the result. This can then cause a severe
depression or diabetes or hypoglycemia or many other
problems as both estrogen and magnesium levels drop
through the years.
The use of
contraceptives, and estrogen replacement
therapies cause magnesium deficiencies.
realize that more than three hundred types of tissues
throughout the body have receptors for estrogen--which
is to say that they're affected in some way by the
hormone--it's not surprising that its decrease would
cause physical changes. Estrogen affects the genital
organs (vagina, vulva, and uterus), the urinary organs
(bladder and urethra), breasts, skin, hair, mucous
membranes, bones, heart and blood vessels, pelvic
muscles, and the brain. It's the loss of estrogen to
these organs that causes the ultimate changes of
menopause, including dry skin and hair, incontinence and
susceptibility to urinary tract infections, vaginal
dryness, and, most important, the diseases osteoporosis
and heart disease. These diseases are at the center of
the controversy concerning menopause: Because estrogen
plays a role in preventing these diseases, should you
replace the estrogen lost at the time of menopause with
a synthetic version?
have non-reproductive effects. They antagonize the
effects of the, parathyroid hormone, minimizing the loss
of calcium from bones, and they promote blood clotting.
several forms of estrogen but the one most important for
reproduction is estradiol, a substance secreted by the
ovary. In addition to being responsible for the
development of sexual characteristics in women, estrogen
governs the monthly thickening of the endometrium and
the quantity and quality of cervical and vaginal mucus
so important to the successful passage of the sperm.
super critical to endrocrine function. Gonadotropin
Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a master hormone from
the hypothalamus in the brain. It sparks the release of
follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
from the pituitary gland, which in turn prompt
production of estrogen and progesterone in the ovaries.
Magnesium is involved in melatonin production and the
circadian clocks in the human body. In particular, a
deficiency of magnesium can impair the suprachiasmatic
nucleus of the hypothalamus.
And balanced magnesium status is required to obtain
efficiency of suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal
Examinations of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and
of the endocrine system points to the involvement of the
because magnesium affects all elements of this system.
Magnesium has the property to reduce the release of
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and to affect
adrenocortical sensitivity to ACTH.
replacement therapy (HRT) is based on the incorrect
assumption that your body becomes incapable of producing
appropriate amounts of hormones simply because we reach
a certain age. Your body does alter
its hormone production as you pass through the stages
of our life, but hormone problems are a function of
how healthy you are, not how old you are.
Theresa Dale, ND
In today’s age, with a
staggering 68% of Americans not consuming the
recommended daily intake of magnesium and more than 19%
of Americans not consuming even half of the government’s
recommended daily intake of magnesium, we can easily
see that magnesium impacts these life changes, the
accompanying discomforts and can often reduce the
problems and long term risks that occur.
menopause, estrogen plays a protective role in relation
to heart disease, but as estrogen production diminishes,
the risk of heart disease increases.
Ten years after menopause, a woman has nearly
the same risk as a man of dying of heart disease.
magnesium researcher, Dr. Mildred Seelig points out that
although there is no uniform agreement that estrogens
lower serum magnesium levels, most of the evidence
points in that direction.
It is also
possible that the paradoxical effects of estrogen on
diseases of the cardiovascular system relate partially
to its effects on magnesium distribution. It has been
shown that serum magnesium falls with the cyclic
increase in estrogen secretion.
rats given estrogen showed decreased serum magnesium
levels, without increased urinary magnesium output, and
since the bone-magnesium increased, Goldsmith and
Baumberger (1967) proposed that a shift of
magnesium to the tissues was responsible for the
estrogen-induced fall in serum magnesium.
The role that
magnesium plays in the transmission of hormones (such as
insulin, thyroid, estrogen, testosterone, DHEA, etc.),
neurotransmitters (such as dopamine, catecholamines,
serotonin, GABA, etc.), and minerals and mineral
electrolytes is crucial.
occurring during perimenopause can be severe
and may correlate with naturally decreasing levels of
hit peak levels around the age of twenty and then
decrease as we age.
is one of the primary bio-markers for aging, the long
range effect of large doses of magnesium in a usable
form is to significantly raise DHEA levels and thus
produce true age reversal results. Dr. Norman Shealy,
who is an expert on anti-aging, has done studies
regarding magnesium and aging, refers to DHEA as the
Master Hormone. He states that when produced at
sufficient levels, DHEA will induce the production of
all of the other hormones whose depletion can be
associated with many symptoms of aging. He found that
through the transdermal use of Magnesium Oil, women have
reported complete abatement of menopausal symptoms and
some have even returned to their menstrual cycle.
was found only when magnesium is applied through the
and not with oral products.
One of the major sexual impacts of decreased estrogen
is a shrinking of the vagina and thinning of the vaginal
walls, along with a loss of elasticity and decreased
vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal. Some women
experience only slight changes in sexual functioning,
while others have dryness and pain with intercourse, or
genital soreness for a few days after sexual activity,
if they don't use a vaginal lubricant or take some form
of hormone replacement. We have reports from some women
using magnesium oil, that when sprayed in the vaginal
area, lubrication is increased, vaginal dryness
decreases, and sexual arousal is increased. Dr. Shealy
confirms these findings from his clinical experience.
It would seem
from experimental studies on animals that when one is
on magnesium, small problems loom large, even
overpowering. Thus animals
deprived of magnesium suffer from super excitability to
such an extent that they become hysterical at the sound of small noises or
the sight of shadows.
J. I. R odale
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by
physical and emotional symptoms that develop following
ovulation and decrease with the beginning of
menstruation. These recurrent symptoms typically include
anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue, abdominal
bloating, fluid retention in fingers and ankles, breast
tenderness, altered sex drive, headache, and food
cravings. The combination and severity of symptoms vary
among women. The Office of Women’s Health within the
Department of Health and Human Services reports that as
many as 75 percent of women experience some symptoms of
premenstrual syndrome. This correlates quite closely
with MIT’s estimate that 67 % of the population is
deficient in magnesium.
supplementation with magnesium is highly
preferred over use of DHEA creams with their many
precautions and can relieve many of these troublesome
importance of balancing calcium with magnesium is noted
by Dr. Christianne Northrup,
a ratio of 1:1
between calcium and magnesium for PMS symptoms.
Magnesium supplementation has been shown, in
double-blind trials, to be effective in relieving
premenstrual symptoms. Dr. Melvyn R Werbach believes
that even though many nutrients are implicated in the
development of PMS, the borderline magnesium levels seen
in PMS patients can explain most of the symptoms.
He notes that marginal deficiency of magnesium can
deplete brain dopamine, impair estrogen metabolism,
increase insulin secretion, and cause enlargement of the
adrenal cortex (responsible for producing many hormones
including sex hormones, stress hormones, and blood-sugar
magnesium is the underrated all-star in terms of
menopausal women," says Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD,
pointing out it is not only good for bones, but it helps
prevent heart disease and can keep you calm and help you
sleep throughout the night. She recommends all women
going through menopause take magnesium supplements along
with Flax Seed.
Up to 80% of American women experience hot flashes
during menopause while only 10% of Japanese women
experience that symptom. Some researchers speculate that
these differences may be due to differences in diet,
lifestyle, and/or cultural attitudes toward aging.
But these suggested differences are vague and global in
scope. In all likelihood the big difference is
magnesium. Japanese women consume a large amount of sea
vegetables of one kind or another all of which are
extraordinarily high in magnesium.
plays a critical role in a wide range of essential
activities throughout the body, including many functions
relevant to premenstrual changes experienced by some
women. Magnesium is classed as 'nature's tranquillizer'
and so is vital in those aspects of the pre-menstrual
symptoms which relate to anxiety, tension, etc. Women
with PMS have been found to have lower levels of red
blood cell magnesium than women who don't have symptoms
and the supplementation of magnesium has been found to
be extremely useful in alleviating many of the PMS
symptoms and even more effective when taken with vitamin
B6 at the same time. A magnesium deficiency can cause
blood vessels to go into spasms so if you suffer from
menstrual migraines magnesium can be useful in
preventing these spasms.
necessary for serotonin synthesis, which in turn is
critical in mood regulation. Magnesium also appears to
promote proper fluid balance, helping to ease the
uncomfortable build up of excess fluid experienced by
some women prior to menstruation. Inadequate magnesium
levels have been found in women who experience
premenstrual cravings and appetite changes.
A woman’s menopause should not
be seen as a pathologic endocrine deficiency disease
because female hormones normally abate with advancing
age as reproductive function comes to a halt. How and
why this happens is a relative mystery to mainstream
medicine but we can easily see how certain conditions
will hasten and deepen the decline of the key hormones
It is clear
though that living without the protective effects of
estrogen increases a woman’s risk for developing serious
medical conditions, including osteoporosis and
cardiovascular disease. Women have every reason in the
world to start supplementing their diets with large
amounts of magnesium early in life, especially with
magnesium chloride when applied transdermally. Though no
one knows exactly why that form alone seems to provoke
increases in DHEA levels, it probably has something to
do with the penetration of the magnesium through the fat
Women should pay
particular attention to adequate intakes of magnesium
starting early on and supplement as necessary to assure
adequate DHEA levels and better balanced hormone levels.
Because women’s issues are centered on hormonal balances
it is vital to understand that the only way discovered
so far to raise DHEA levels naturally is through
transdermal application of magnesium chloride. Though
magnesium chloride can be purchased in many pharmacies I
highly recommend people experience a naturally
made magnesium chloride that is a by-product of salt
production. Below are some briefs on specific conditions
related to menopause or menstruation where magnesium is
shown to be of significant help.
Low magnesium levels may be a
trigger for menstrual migraine. Mauskop et al reported a
deficiency in ionized magnesium in 45% of attacks of
menstrual migraine, while only 15% of nonmenstrually
related attacks had a deficiency. They also demonstrated
that attacks associated with low ionized magnesium could
be aborted by intravenous magnesium infusions.
Facchinetti et al demonstrated that menstrual
migraine could be prevented by administration of oral
magnesium during the last 15 days of the menstrual
Disorders and Magnesium
Perimenopause and menopause related mood disorders cause
significant distress to a large number of women. In the
United States, one half of perimenopausal women will
report feeling irritated or depressed.
Different studies have shown that a woman's risk for a
first bout with depression rises sharply as she
approaches menopause. "There is a subgroup of women who,
for multiple reasons, may be more vulnerable," said Dr.
Lee Cohen of Harvard Medical School, which followed 460
Boston-area women for six years.
show without doubt that there is a definite relation
between magnesium deficiency and depression and that
increasing our intake of magnesium can bring relief.
Please see chapter on magnesium, violence and
Each year over
300,000 women suffer a hip fracture brought
on by osteoporosis. Within a year, one in five will die.
plays a significant role in preventing Osteoporosis in
the post menopausal period. Studies have shown that
magnesium improves bone mineral density.
Without adequate magnesium, calcium cannot enter the
Heavy metal exposure affects bone density.
with menopause may suffer from osteoporosis due to
estrogen deficiency, bone fragility increases with
increasing magnesium deficiency. High calcium intake is
recommended for women with menopause, but adequate
magnesium intake is necessary to lower dietary Ca/Mg
ratio, because the high ratio prompts blood coagulation.
A group of
menopausal women were given magnesium hydroxide to
assess the effects of magnesium on bone density. At the
end of the 2-year study, magnesium therapy appears to
have prevented fractures and resulted in a significant
increase in bone density.
The relationship between calcium and magnesium is dealt
with extensively in the chapter on Calcium and
women suffer from heart palpitations associated with hot
flashes. This can be helped by increasing your intake of
magnesium. Magnesium plays a significant role in body
Studies in the use of therapeutic hypothermia have shown
the efficacy of magnesium in lowering body temperatures.
This supports the use of transdermal magnesium therapy
for surface cooling by non invasive methods.
Body temperature may be regulated by Mg in two ways. One
is through its central sedative effect on the
hypothalamus and the second through its peripheral
effect achieved by reducing the neuromuscular
excitability. Mg is lowered during hyperthermia due to
its loss via sweat and magnesium diuresis
see that magnesium plays a significant role in
regulation of blood sugars and regulation of body
temperature, it makes good sense to utilize magnesium
for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms during menopause
and we can expect to find great improvement, more
comfort, less mood disturbance and a smoother transition
to post menopause. In addition Magnesium serves as a
natural muscle relaxant, making it useful for relieving
such symptoms as muscle cramping and anxiety.
International Medical Veritas Association
Copyright 2006 All rights reserved.
The communication is intended for informational
purposes only. Nothing in this is intended to be a
substitute for professional medical advice.
Dr. David Eddy is the doctor whose Stanford PhD
thesis made front-page news in 1980 by overturning
the guidelines of the time. It showed that annual
chest X-rays and yearly Pap smears for women at low
risk of cervical cancer were a waste of resources,
and it won the most prestigious award in the field
of operations research, the Frederick W. Lanchester
prize. Based on his results, the American Cancer
Society changed its guidelines.
"We don't have the evidence [that treatments work],
and we are not investing very much in getting the
evidence," says Dr. Stephen C. Schoenbaum, executive
vice-president of the Commonwealth Fund and former
president of Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Inc.
In Greek, hormone means " to set in motion."
Hormones are made by endocrine glands to control
another part of the body. They require protein and
fatty acids, cholesterol and magnesium to
manufacture them. Many different hormones must be
balanced one with another. This is done in at least
two ways: (1) by the brain's information center,
which monitors the state of the body, and (2)
self-regulation as each gland detects chemical
levels in the blood, giving "feedback" on the needs
of the body. Glands may react by secreting one
hormone to shut down the production or effects of
another. Glands have the power to produce several
different kinds of hormones at any time. The liver
also has the power to control an overabundance of
some hormones in the blood. Endocrine glands include
the gonads, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid,
thymus and adrenals.
Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Willett WC,
Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. The use of
estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast
cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med
Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast
cancer and hormone replacement therapy. Lancet
 Garg PP,
Kerlikowske K, Subak L, Grady D. Hormone replacement
therapy and the risk of epithelial ovarian
carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Weiss NS, LaCroix AZ. Adherence to postmenopausal
hormone therapy during the year after the initial
prescription. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;182:270-6.
 A deficiency
in magnesium causes hyperplasia of the adrenal
cortex, elevated aldosterone levels, and increased
extracellular fluid volume. Aldosterone increases
the urinary excretion of magnesium; hence, a
positive feedback mechanism results, which is
aggravated since there is no renal mechanism for
Perimenopause is the naturally occurring transition
period that takes place in women before the
onset of menopause. It may begin as early as 35,
even earlier for women who smoke. It is a temporary
phase, typically lasting two to three years for most
women, though for some it can last as long as 10 or
12 years. Women in perimenopause rank insomnia,
irritability, and depressed mood among the most
common complaints. Mental health is the most
prevalent difficulty, not hot flashes. This stage of
a women's life has not been talked about much, and a
woman can find herself experiencing puzzling
changes, and not know why. Studies have shown that
in the perimenopause the incidence of negative
changes was somewhat higher than in the
postmenopause, the latter bringing relief of
discomfort and a more positive mental outlook.
Perimenopause terminates with the cessation of
 Dahl, 1950;
Nida and Broja, 1957; Goldsmith, 1963; Goldsmith et
al., 1970; Goldsmith, 1971). The use of
estrogen-containing oral contraceptives has been
shown to reduce the serum levels of magnesium (in
users versus nonusers) by 16% (Goldsmith et al.,
1966), 28% (DeJorge et al., 1967), and by 27% and
33% (Goldsmith, 1971). Evaluation of different
contraceptives suggests that it is the estrogen
moiety that is responsible for the decrease in serum
magnesium (Goldsmith and Goldsmith, 1966; Goldsmith
et al., 1970, Goldsmith and Johnston, 1976/1980)
although there are conflicting findings. So all the
contraceptive pills, and hormone replacement
estrogen preparations are probably decreasing
women’s magnesium levels too. Seelig, Mildred;
Northrup, C. MD. Women's Bodies, Women's Wisdom.
Judy Piatkus Publ. London, England, 1995.
Werbach, M. MD, J Alt & Comp Med. Feb. 1994;12(2).
Reports differ but there has been some consensus
that up to 80% of women in western societies such as
Australia suffer from a myriad of physical and
psychological difficulties at menopause (MacLennan,
1988). These include hot flushes, night sweats,
vaginal dryness, loss of libido, palpitations,
headaches, osteoporosis, depression and irritability
(Walsh & Schiff, 1990). Interestingly, women in some
non-western cultures appear to be significantly less
affected by menopausal ills. For instance, Mayan
women from South America (Beyene, 1986) and Rajput
women in India (Kaufert, 1982) report no 'symptoms'.
According to Lock et al (1988) Japanese women
rarely mention hot flushes and the incidence of
other problems such as backache and headache is low.
It is therefore expected that due to the
cross-cultural nature of the sample certain
differences are likely to emerge with regard to
physical, psychological and socio-cultural menopause
Women, body and society. Cross-cultural differences
in menopause experiences;
Gabriella Berger & Eberhard Wenzel ;
 Obermeyer CM.
Menopause across cultures: a review of the evidence.
Risk for new onset of depression during the
menopausal transition: the Harvard study of moods
and cycles. Cohen:
Arch Gen Psychiatry.
Cerebrospinal fluid magnesium and calcium related to
amine metabolites, diagnosis, and suicide attempts;
Banki et al;
Biol Psychiatry. 1985 Feb;20(2):163-71.
Treatment of severe mania with intravenous magnesium
sulphate as a supplementary therapy. Heiden A et al;
Psychiatry Res. 1999 Dec. 27; 89(3): 239-46
Institute of Medicine. Food and
Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes:
Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and
National Academy Press.
Washington, DC, 1999
supplementation and osteoporosis. Seijka Je, Weaver;
Rev. 1995 Mar;53(3):71-4
significant is magnesium in thermoregulation? J
Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 1998;9(1):73-85. PMID:
9793804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
hypothermia shows promise as a treatment for acute
stroke. Surface cooling techniques are being
developed but, although noninvasive, they typically
achieve slower cooling rates than endovascular
methods. We assessed the hypothesis that the
addition of intravenous MgSO4 to an antishivering
pharmacological regimen increases the cooling rate
when using a surface cooling technique. Subjects
who received MgSO(4) had significantly higher mean
comfort scores than those who did not (48+/-15
versus 38+/-12; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:
Administration of intravenous MgSO(4) increases the
cooling rate and comfort when using a surface
cooling technique. Magnesium sulfate increases the
rate of hypothermia via surface cooling and improves
Stroke. 2004 Oct;35(10):2331-4. Epub 2004 Aug 19.
PMID: 15322301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]